by: Julian Extremera (*)
this is a automatic translate to english version, we apologice for inconvenience.
If you are able to arrive until the end I believe that you are going to solve any doubt on the refrigerator of your boat or to camper.
Dear navigator, the refrigeration in small boats, it is a subject little known and nevertheless it has a great weight in comfort of a boat by small that this is. In summer a good fresh beer on board does not have price.
All we know like being cold in house: ---->vamos to the store we bought a refrigerator already and this.
In a boat it can be equal of easy if this he is great .
In the market there are refrigerators that work to 12v of reduced dimensions.
you can consult to me on it since I am distributing of a pair of companies.
In the shipyard usually it reserves a space to him in the kitchen or cover, the new boats or leave series with the refrigerator or installed refrigerator.
If we want to mount a single one we must look for one that adapts to the dimensions that we have.
We have several finished sizes and. In nautical what one takes it is the wood frontal since aesthetically it is but integrated in the surroundings. also there are white doors or of finished inox.
These refrigerators have in their superior part a small freezer for ice cubes.
To install them is easy are connected to a protected of picture to 12 V. and ready switch.
The advantage of this system is that he is comfortable , and that when opening the door we immediately see what we have inside, this whole but by hand, and the this best one packed.
The disadvantage is that when we opened the door it leaves all the cold to him that as “it weighs” falls of the refrigerator, with which the electrical consumption batteries increased.
And in these refrigerators or made the isolation it is not as good as in the typical ice refrigerator that comes or in the boat. In addition as much single space is possible in boats of but of 10 meters.
With these refrigerators it is possible to be arrived until about 220 liters of capacity (almost as in house) with a consumption from 60w working 75% of the time.
Another system to enjoy fresh drink on board or food storage is the ice refrigerator, this is not but that an isolated coffer in which when leaving to sail we already filled it of ice (of the powerboat) or we bring of house the charged batteries of the freezer. (To see photo)
If the coffer the this either isolated and drink or I generate or this cold it can last the system several hours to us.
It is necessary to remember cover the water-drainage of the bottom of the coffer because if the cold does not go away to the well
Like advantage: there is nothing is possible to be spoiled, is no electrical consumption is no noise IS NOTHING.
Like disadvantage: The opening of this coffer is superior and she is not as comfortable as a common refrigerator. they do not have inner light (although one can mount) and when the ice is based or the storage cells unload I finish.
Another versatile and comfortable system but is to turn that isolated coffer a refrigerator or freezer .
For it, not very far, it must mount the compressor. The place must be ventilated, so that the heat is not accumulated and the system renders of optimal way.
Within the coffer we put an evaporator. That it can be of plate, by forced ventilation or a storage cell of cold.
So that the coffer is a refrigerator or a freezer we will put a more or less powerful equipment, and a suitable evaporator to him.
If we determine the proportions the set for freezing we will also have a refrigerator if therefore we requested it to the thermostat, that is to say, that we will be able to have a temperature of +10ºC to - 17ºC. Much people decide on this system, and choose if they want to conserve or to congeal.
The maximum electrical consumption of an equipment of these this in 60w about 4.5 amperes, but will not be all the short while in march mainly if a good isolation has the coffer.
Soon to calculate the autonomy of batteries we would tell to 4.5 amperes by 12 /d hours ía leave 54 Amperes hour every day .capacidad of easily restituible current with a solar panel or putting into operation the motor of the boat.
The previous case is for the worse one of the scenes, torrid summer, little isolation of the refrigerator, low inner temperature, many openings and entrance of I generate to room temperature. Perhaps in less severe conditions the compressor worked few hours to the day 5 or 6 hours of intermittent way.
(In the case of having to cool about 400 liters the consumption usually is between 60 and 100w, these volumes single occur in boats of great length and therefore they often have a bank of batteries determine the proportions and a generator of 220v.).
Although I insist the important thing is not the volume to cool if not the isolation of the coffer.
The compressor has electronic unit that automatically is exchanged to a 12 or 24v and if the low tension of a value that can be fit (11,7v) the compressor disconnects to save the batteries.
Also mistakes in the polarity of feeding and overloads of temperature are protected against, and the best thing: they can work up to 35 º of lists without damages (fitted).
Plates: one mounts agreed to the volume that we want to often cool must bend the plate to 90 º to take two faces of the coffer.
There are plates closed in which a cubitera of ice can be put in its interior, in the flat ones is not possible to be made ice except for the second model of the photo of the right in which a cubitera leans.
The advantages of the flat plates are that they do not have any failure during his life utility are robust and they do not give problems.
Evaporator by forced ventilator.
When the volume of the coffer is important usually puts an evaporator forced. We obtain with this system a cooling but fast of I generate and a homogenous distribution of temperatures in all the space to cool. to it it has one or two ventilators that impel the air through interchanger.
Even though that has a built-in ventilator the consumption is not excellent because it arrives before at the selected temperature and this less time in spot than an evaporator of plate without ventilator.
But these evaporators I usually have problems with the ventilator to the 2 years since with the humidity they nail and is necessary to change them, to my personally by reliability likes but to put plates flat.
The Noise of the compressor is very little almost imperceptible less than 30 db. I have clients who sleep over e, l or alongside and she does not bother to them.
dimensions: There are diverse extended dispositions
in order to mount in wall, etc but commonest x measures 22cm 22cm height x 22.
Storage cells of cold
It is the combination but perfect for the nautical one, in port loads the cumulador and you are going away to sail without spending nor an ampere of current.
Equivalent the serious one like having one
normal refrigerator of full plate but of cold storage cells.
But in the cumulador this whole in a block of inox.
The storage cell is not but that a solution eutectic with a high heat I specify that it much more has the freezing point under which the water.
The plates that are used in conservation “DES congeal” to -11ºC. and those that are used for freezing “DES they congeal” to -22ºC. Step to clarify this.
If we have an ice block congealed to for example -14º and we left it to the sun this defrosted to 0 ºC, wrath lowering little by little from -14 to 0 and remained DES there congealing until completes drop. If we put a thermometer we will see that the defrost of always produces to 0 degrees.
Then the one of the accumulating plates is the same but to other temperatures, depending on the plate.
When DES is congealed if you put a thermometer sides that always are to a temperature. constant -11ºC or - 22ºC.
And if we have a plate of -22 in a coffer of congealed this will maintain I generate during several hours, equal with the one of conservation.
The disadvantage is that when connects the refrigerator and the coffer this hot one it takes much in cooling because most of the cold is used to load the plate, we say that it has much inertia; But when the compressor becomes disconnected the plate maintains the temperature of the coffer during several hours.
This is ideal for the nautical one and the boats of average type in which it is wanted to manage the batteries well.
You connect hours the refrigerator before and as these connected to the port taking you do not spend the batteries (later I explain a system to exchange between batteries and port) and you sail all the day without spending an ampere.
But this is necessary to manage it of an electronic way
The unit of the right does. With her we can fit the temperature of the refrigerator, and force to that the storage cell unloads tightening a button.
She herself if she detects that the tension of batteries is sufficient 12.7 (because they are loading them) automatically puts to load the storage cell.
And if it detects that the low batteries are she herself for the compressor and unloads the cumulador. a wonder and with leds indicates what this to us doing at every moment.
With this electronic management we forgot the refrigerator, the only thing that we must do is to push a button when we leave to sail not to spend batteries.
DISADVANTAGES: it is worth a paste… and the thermostat goes interlocked reason why it is necessary to bore a bulkhead thing that in a boat is a heresy, since the thermostat after years spoiled and the bulkhead remained with a pretty square hole for always.
All refrigerating equipment as much a conditioned air as a refrigerator, generates heat, in fact the heat is not but that the cold that we extract. This heat we have it to evacuate in the condenser.
We have condensers of air and water of sea. If the compressor is going to be in a ventilated affluent place we can condense by air, if this the compressor at heart of a coffer we must condense by water of sea, the heat we removed it outside the boat.
To the right a hermetic compressor of 12v with a small condenser in form of Or in the superior part. We needed a small pump that the equipment feeds with water on sea, for that reason the electrical consumption increased, in addition to being an element but to spoil.
Here an equipment of high power to 12v, (typical in American boats) the condenser already is but powerful, and needs a pump water of at least 5 liters minute. As it is seen in the photo needs a strap to transmit the turn to the compressor. The water condenser of sea is of cupronikel, because the copper or the stainless steel lasts two days.
Here we have he himself equipment of above but condensed by air.
It must be mounted in a place ventilated like an engine room or a great coffer with grates of ventilation to the outside.
For small powers the be-helmet condensers exist we saved in this case the water pump but we must beach the boat and make a hole to mount the condenser. it is necessary to have well-taken care of and to never paint it. he is very trustworthy.
The condenser of the right this more and more in disuse by the little “hydrodynamics” and the exhibition to blows and incrustations.
With a water-drainage condenser we were avoided to perforate the helmet, goes at heart mounted of the water-drainage of the goad where the level of the water of sea floods it and there it yields heat .
but caracolillo is happy there has water that renews with the movement of the boat, and is warm, usually is embozar is used very little.
For high powers hermetic compressors to 220V as in the commerce or to 12v opened like the one of the right are used. Hermetic compressors are called because inside this the compressor and the electrical motor that moves it, this whole encapsulation in a “ball”.
A problem that finds people at the time of mounting a refrigerator to 12v is like always having loaded the batteries to be able to have the refrigerator in operation.
Many let the shipper of batteries in march always connected pantalán in flotation to maintain the batteries and that when arrives the weekend, the refrigerator this cold one.
In order to do this the shipper must be good, are not worth the shippers of car type ferve, the shipper has to be intelligent so that he can be permanently connected and not LOADING the batteries by overload, I usually mounts quality shippers to avoid this (to consult to me)
An electronic switch, is a small box at which they arrive 12v to him from the batteries 220v of the port and the exit for the compressor.
The apparatus selects for the compressor whenever the taking of 220v can and it transforms them to 12v.
If they disappear 220v automatically it happens to feed the compressor with the batteries. This way you forget the refrigerator. When salts to sail it is not necessary to connect nothing she herself feeds itself on the batteries.
And if the batteries are low the group of disconnects not to unload them absolutely.
A compressor is driven by a strap that happens through a steering wheel of the motor.
This system is almost identical to which we have with the conditioned air of the car. And that also is used in many of the cooled trucks of distribution which they circulate around the street.
This system is known him popularly in nautical like FRIGOBOAT, because this manufacturer has a totally complete line of accessories to mount a system of these.
FRIGOBOAT is a system the one of of high quality and “agreed” price.
But it can take control the same of material of the world of the automobile.
It is a complex system to mount and that sometimes one, sweats the fat drop to pass the tubes by impossible sites.
When the assembly becomes in shipyard is to sew and to sing, but to do it once the boat this finished and the client has filled it of equipment can be good puzzle fitting all the equipment. That is translated in manual labor, a system of these leaves expensive.
This type of assembly has advantages and disadvantages, we begin by.
WHEN YOU HAVE YOUR REFRIGERATOR of 12v INSTALLED HERE YOU HAVE ADVICE SO THAT HE SPENDS LITTLE GOAD HERE
Single In Barcelona and the Catalan coast
If you have an isolated coffer (ice refrigerator) you can mount a refrigerator or freezer there (if
this isolated good)
This is equipment air cooled consumes of 3 to 5 24 amperes to 12 or v
(one becomes disconnected to 11.5 v to protect the one batteries on unloading),
very very quiet, extremely trustworthy, and it admits lists it permanent of 35º,
here you have kit for made yourself.
also I have things of 2ª hand.
WE WORK IN PORT VELL, PORT OLIMPIC, MASNOU, PALAMOS, TARRAGONA ,ALL THE CATALONIAN COAST
(*) (Technician in industrial, Technical electronics in cold and air conditioning and Captain of Yacht )